A visit to Capitol Hill, November 1851

Seattle Lith

A wooded Capitol Hill (center hill) as envisioned from above by a lithograph artist in 1878 (Image: Library of Congress)

On November 13, 1851 the Denny Party landed on Alki Point in West Seattle. They obviously weren’t the first people to arrive at the bay at the mouth of what would be called the Duwamish River, nor were they even the first Europeans, but they stuck it out and are generally credited for founding modern day Seattle.

The primary concern of Seattle’s early pioneers was establishing a thriving port in Elliott Bay. Seattle’s “Seven Hills” were nice to look at, but not the focus of development until a few decades later. What was on top of Capitol Hill in 1851?

The still-wooded area around Capitol Hill's present-day northeast might be the closest glimpse into the hill's past: Interlaken Park, originally uploaded by e_grosh

The still-wooded area around Capitol Hill’s present-day northeast
might be the closest glimpse into the hill’s past:
Interlaken Park, originally uploaded by e_grosh

First, a little geological history. Much of Seattle’s natural landscape was formed some 13,000 years ago. Two thousand years earlier, the Puget Lobe of the Cordilleran Glacier covered much of the area between the Olympics and Cascades down to Olympia. As the massive ice sheet receded north, it carved the land forming much of the landscape we see today. That’s partially why on Capitol Hill, and the rest of Seattle’s hills, we see gentle slopes running north-south as compared to the steep drop-offs on the east and west.

Despite the significant transformations Europeans and their descendants have made on the Seattle landscape, Capitol Hill’s geography has remained relatively unscathed save a few creeks and springs that have long been paved over. Unlike Denny Hill, which was totally leveled in a massive regrading project, Capitol Hill’s topography is still basically intact, said local geologist and author David Williams.

Denny Hill in 1869, shot by George Robinson; Capitol Hill would have likely looked similar to this (Image: Washington State History Society)

Denny Hill in 1869, shot by George Robinson; Capitol Hill would have likely looked similar to this (Image: Washington State History Society)

“There’s been a little bit of shaving here and there. More a trim than a cut,” said Williams, who is currently working on a book about how Seattleites have shaped and manipulated the landscape of city. For more on one of those trims, see: CHS Re:Take | Undermining the Republican Senator from Melrose

When the Dennys arrived in 1851, Williams said Capitol Hill would have been primarily covered with douglas fir, western hemlock, and cedar. On the steep eastern and western hillsides, alders and big leaf maples would have been more prominent as landslides would have prevented dense conifer growth. Interlaken Park may offer one of the best nearby displays of what the landscape may have looked like around the time of the Denny landing.

Picture 14

“A Birds Eye View of Seattle” in 1891, showing a mostly clear cropped Capitol Hill with development underway (Image: Library of Congress)

A remarkably detailed lithograph from 1867 shows Capitol Hill was still covered in woodlands at the time.  Another similar lithograph only 10 years later shows the hill had been mostly cleared. The lithographs can’t be wholly trusted, said John Findlay, a UW historian and editor of Pacific Northwest Quarterly.

“There were no ‘birds eye views’, they couldn’t get up in a plane,” Findlay said. “Lithographs did tend to show a more civilized view of cities.”

Nevertheless, Findlay said the early lithographs can give us a good sense of the topography and land uses. Since neither the Europeans nor the native people living here would have been planting timber at this time, the forested area on Capitol Hill would have been first growth.


Location of Duwamish villages in the Seattle area (Image: coastalsalishmap.org)

The Denny Party landing is celebrated as the founding of modern Seattle, but like most European landings in the New World, the native experience was not so grand. The Duwamish tribe has inhabited modern day Seattle for some 10,000 years. Like most Coastal Salish people, society was organized around salmon fishing. No salmon, no settlement, said Alan Boraas, professor of anthropology at Kenai Peninsula College in Alaska and jseattle’s father-in-law. The Duwamish maintained around a dozen village sites in present-day Seattle, all in areas with easy water access. Capitol Hill, lacking easy fishing access, did not have a permanent settlement.

“In the winter season, there was hunting, going after beaver, deer, elk, bear. People may have moved up into Capitol Hill for hunting to bring back food,” Boraas said. “These were essentially sedentary people that were going out on various forays.”

“It was all timber, from the hills down to the water,” said current Duwamish Tribe chairperson Cecile Hansen.

Narrative descriptions of the Hill are hard to come by. A cursory search through two early histories of Seattle doesn’t reveal much about Capitol Hill, or Broadway Hill as it was once known. During the 1855 “Battle of Seattle,” a Navy admiral named T. S. Phelps described a wide lake trail that ran from present day downtown to Lake Washington. This trail may have cut through the depression between Capitol Hill and First Hill, Findlay said.

By the 1880s people were making their way up into Seattle’s hillsides to build permanent homes. In 1887 the city purchased 40 acres that would eventually become Volunteer Park. By the time Aurthur Denny died in 1899, Capitol Hill had already transformed from a wild, wooded landscape to a burgeoning, increasingly dense residential neighborhood.

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10 thoughts on “A visit to Capitol Hill, November 1851

  1. I disagree with Findlay about not having “bird’s eye views” available in 1891. The Union sent men aloft in balloons in the civil war to spy on the Confederate armies. They were the first aerial surveys done and someone in 1891 could have gone up in a balloon to capture Seattle from above.

  2. Thanks for posting this. I love those old documents. Being born and raised in a City that was founded by the celts around 400bc I am always amazed by how new Seattle is and how quickly it developed.

  3. For all of the newer Seattle transplants, hope this article helps. One of my biggest pet peeves is that people say “I live in Capitol Hill” or “I was in First Hill today”. I hear it and read it more and more. Technically that is incorrect. The hills of Seattle are geographical features. Unless you are a mutant mole person, you don’t live “IN” Capitol Hill you live ON Capitol Hill.

    • Capitol Hill can refer either to the geographic feature – in which case “on” is correct; but can also refer to the neighborhood, in which case “in” is perfectly correct. It’s similar with Pioneer Square, just because someone says they live in Pioneer Square (the neighborhood), doesn’t mean they’re camping out in the triangular plot of land that’s home to the totem pole and pergola. Likewise with Beacon Hill. Queen Anne is a different case; it refers only to the neighborhood, so you have to say “on Queen Anne Hill” to refer to the hill, vs “in Queen Anne” for the neighborhood.

      It’s arguable that in Capitol Hill’s case, its use as a neighborhood name came first: the hill (actually a ridge) was earlier known as Broadway Hill, with Capitol Hill being the name that in ~1901 developer James A Moore gave to his housing development immediately south and east of Volunteer Park; it was only later that the area known by the name would grow to include the Broadway District and even Pike/Pine.


      Now if you’ll excuse me, I need to go do some shopping at Pike’s Market…

      • At North Queen Anne Elementary (back in the day), I was taught that the ONLY hill in Seattle was Queen Anne; the rest are ridges. And looking at a topographic map, you can kind of see it. Beacon Hill and Capitol Hill are a ridge.

      • Pioneer Square is a neighborhood, so if you say you live in Pioneer Square people get it.

        As for Capitol Hill being a “ridge” … Call it what you want its still a hill and you live ON it, not IN it.

        From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia…..

        A ridge is a geological feature consisting of a chain of mountains or HILLS that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance. Ridges are usually termed HILLS or mountains as well, depending on size.

      • Capitol Hill is a large ridge more than a hill in my opinion. In fact Beacon and Capitol hills are the same geographical feature — the valley at Dearborn is man-made. To insist that it is just a hill is dense.

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